About Nail Salon Exchange Project

Nail Salon Exchange Project, (performance/video/sound-based installation) there is a common thread between gardening and getting nails done—hands to be nurtured. As the numbers of nail salons have increased in the South End for social/economical reasons, this project is designed to make a link between the BCA and BSCG. Audiences are invited to participate and experience our nail salon built in the Mills Gallery space where they will be "immersed" in the interior living space of the BSCG gardeners and garden plots or make an appointment for a manicure.

Posted by kanarinka on July 15, 2005 at 11:00 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Invitation To Participate In The Nail Salon Exchange Project

Hands for gardens. Hands for manicures. Hands to grow, to clean, to cut, to nurture.

THE NAIL SALON EXCHANGE PROJECT invites nail salons from the South End to work with us to explore the relationships between gardening and manicuring as nurturing activities performed by the hands.

The Nail Salon Exchange Project will take place from June 17 – July 31, 2005 at the Mills Gallery at the Boston Center for the Arts.

For Information, Please Contact:

Jeremy Chu
chu_jeremy@yahoo.com/617 304 6287
54 Clarendon Street Level 1 Boston MA 02116

Catherine D'Ignazio a.k.a. kanarinka
kanarinka@ikatun.com/617 501 2441
144 Moody Street Building 4, 4th Floor Waltham, MA 02453

Posted by kanarinka on February 07, 2005 at 09:08 AM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Translation passes through continua of transformation, not abstract ideas of identity and similarity.
Walter Benjamin, 'On language as such and the language of man'

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 01:34 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

[F]or some of us the principle of indeterminism is what makes the conscious freedom of man fathomable.
Jacgues Derrida, 'My chances'/'Mes chances'

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 01:22 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

You've got to
'Ac–cent–tchu–ate the pos–i–tive,
E–li–mi–nate the neg–a–tive',
Latch on to the Af–firm–a–tive,
Don't mess with Mister In–be–tween.
(refrain from 'Ac–cent–tchu–ate the Positive' by Johnny Mercer)

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 01:15 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

The architecture of this work is rooted in the temporal. Every human problem must be considered from the standpoint of time.
(Frantz Fanon: Black Skin, White Masks

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 01:10 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

A boundary is not that at which something stops but, as the Greeks recongnized, the boundary is that from which something begins its presencing.
Martin Heidegger, 'Building, dwelling, thinking'

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 01:03 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Getting a toehold

Cleaning nails opens doors for many Vietnamese

By Thuy-Doan Le and Garance Burke -- Bee Staff Writers
Published  2:15 am PDT Sunday, September 12, 2004

The glass door at Anna Nails bears an American flag. It swings open to a sparkling clean salon lined with low counters filled with racks of polish, manicuring stations and, any place the eye lingers, more American flags.

Inside this small shop, where Vietnamese flows like a song, owner Anna Tran spends 60 hours a week scrubbing feet, buffing calluses and polishing acrylic nails - living her version of the American Dream with each manicure or pedicure.

Count her business in Sacramento's South Land Park as one of thousands of small outposts where Vietnamese immigrants have capitalized on a specialty, challenging full-service salons in the nation's $6.53 billion nail care industry.

In California, Vietnamese American entrepreneurs own up to 80 percent of the nail shops, according to the trade magazine Nails. Although embarking in the field with limited English skills, they have embraced hard work and long hours to give customers a cut-rate option for pampering hands and feet.

"I came here with empty hands, and I built the shop with the support of my husband," said Tran.

  After emigrating from Vietnam, Anna Tran, above left, and top, at her Sacramento shop, found a livelihood in her adopted country by giving manicures and pedicures. She set up her own shop six years ago. The business has helped send her five daughters, including Ann Le, seated above left, Vinh Le, center, and Kim Hop Le, to college.

See additional images

Sacramento Bee/Renée C. Byer

"We tell our children that we left home for their future, so they have to be educated," she said. "I used my own hands and strength to do this."

Doing nails is hard work. Staying in the same position for hours can lead to repetitive strain injuries, and workers can be exposed to disease and, if regulations aren't followed, dangerous chemicals.

Still, for customers seeking affordable pampering, roughly $25 for a manicure-pedicure combination fills the bill.

Nationwide, the average price for a manicure is $15.42 and the average price for a pedicure $29.83, said Hannah Lee, executive editor of Nails magazine. She considers a discount nail shop to be any place that offers services for less than half the price of the industry average.

"Especially in California, it seems like there's a nail salon on every corner," Lee said. "Some salons feel they have to keep prices low to compete, but others think, 'I offer what I need to offer and charge what I want.' "

She said she's heard of businesses eliminating nail services because they can't compete with discount salons. Lee said, however, that they don't have to compete at the lower level.

"They need to find a niche," she said. "There will always be someone paying a little more for a little more service."

Americans spent $6.53 billion for nail salon services in 2002, up 67 percent from 10 years ago, according to Torrance-based Nails magazine.

The number of licensed manicurists has surged 65 percent to 84,008 since 1991, said the California Board of Barbering and Cosmetology. Many of these immigrants sought jobs in nail care to get a better life for themselves and their families.

Tran's eyes well up with tears as she describes life in Vietnam. She said she and her husband were living in Nha Trang when the country fell to the communists in 1975. Soon afterward, the new government sent her husband, a lieutenant in the South Vietnamese Navy, to a rural prison camp for "re-education," Tran said.

The years apart were painful, personally and economically. Tran said she sold fabric in Saigon, a city that was renamed Ho Chi Minh City, to make enough money to visit her husband. People often stole from her, she said.

When her husband was released, the family fled Vietnam by boat, eventually arriving in the United States in 1984.

Like many Vietnamese immigrants, Tran never imagined she could make money from nail care.

"In Vietnam, people keep their real nails and just clean them," she said. "Here, we do fake nails."

Tran, whose husband works for the state of California, started out doing manicures at a friend's shop. She opened her own business six years ago, making enough for material comforts and to help send her five children to college.

Immigrants have long turned to becoming merchants or small-business owners because they were excluded from mainstream jobs, said Bill Hing, author of "Defining America Through Immigration Policy."

"They were discriminated against, and that's why they started looking for another way to make a living," said Hing, who teaches law and Asian American studies at the University of California, Davis. "They ended up becoming entrepreneurs."

Most recently, Russian immigrants have found success in child care, construction and janitorial work, Koreans in the dry-cleaning business, and Cambodians in doughnut shops, said Christine Nguyen, a deputy administrator at Asian Resources. The nonprofit group, which has three offices in Sacramento County, helps low-income families find jobs.

Small businesses are a perfect fit for immigrants with little access to capital, said Dennis Tootelian, a professor of marketing and director of the Center of Small Business at California State University, Sacramento.

"They don't have a lending history, so they tend to go into areas that are more labor intensive, and they are more willing to work hard," he said. "Most immigrants are not afraid of long and odd hours of work."

Because prices are so low at most of these types of salons, long hours and quick customer turnaround are imperative. Kathleen Mikulin, co-owner of Studio 28 hair salon in Sacramento, gets her nails done weekly at a nearby Vietnamese-owned shop.

She doesn't see a huge market in Sacramento for customers willing to spend a lot of money on a total spa manicure. Many full-service salons are changing their marketing to stress that they are one-stop shops for busy women on the go, offering aroma therapy, massages and high-end products.

In the capital region, the influx of Vietnamese immigrants coupled with the surge in population has generated enough demand for nail skills that John Thai Tran, no relation to Anna Tran, has opened two beauty schools in the city.

"I thought about my people and how they wanted to learn how to do nails and hair, and how we didn't have any place to learn because they didn't speak English," he said.

In 1990, he opened My Le beauty school on Stockton Boulevard, and this year started City Beauty College on Florin Road. At both places, courses are taught in Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese and Spanish. For $1,500, students enroll in a three-month course, take a state exam and emerge as licensed manicurists.

The national average weekly income for a nail technician is $496.77, while manicurists on the West Coast can make an average $628.15 a week.

"I tell my students it's a good future for them," he said. "American people like to do their nails, they like to dress up and look beautiful. That's why if they go to beauty school, they can go anywhere."

The surge in students persuaded Nhon Dang to stay on as an instructor at Tran's City Beauty College, rather than retire. The 61-year-old Dang never saw himself as a cosmetologist, let alone an instructor. In Saigon, he was a rare-antiquities dealer.

He finds artistry in the trade and tells his students to focus on technique and not money; otherwise the nails will not be beautiful, meaning the customer won't return.

Dang also warns them to steer clear of toxic chemicals, which some shop owners still use despite regulations banning them. Some customers have criticized nail salons for less-than-sanitary conditions. There have been 317 complaints this year for the state's 3,000 shops.

"My biggest joy is to see them succeed. I don't want any gifts," Dang said. "The best gift they can give me is that they have a job to do nails."

Chau Hoang, 19, who came to the United States in November, is one of a few male students at City Beauty College. He said his family encouraged him to do nails to save up money for college. He wasn't comfortable with the idea, but his parents told him to look at the bigger picture.

"It was kind of strange, but I have to endure it," he said. "If I had a chance and I spoke English, I would do office work, but this is the easiest way to find work when you first come (to the United States)."

Another student, Tham Pham, 23, has been in the United States for a few months. She's heard in Vietnam about how Vietnamese immigrants quickly found work in the U.S. nail business.

In Vietnam, Pham had been preparing to go to college and she knew if she came to the United States, she would end up doing manicures. But without English skills, it would be difficult for her to find another job that would get her out of the house, she said.

"When you first come here, you don't choose your job," she said. "It chooses you."


About the Writer

The Bee's Thuy-Doan Le can be reached at (916) 321-1040 or  tdle@sacbee.com.

The Sacramento Bee

"I came here with empty hands, and I built the shop with the support of my husband. … I used my own hands and strength to do this."
Anna Tran
owner of Anna Nails in South Land Park Sacramento Bee/Renée C. Byer

Anna Tran, working on a client, has hung red, white and blue letters in her South Land Park nail shop that spell "I love USA." Sacramento Bee/Renée C. Byer

Tham Pham, who recently emigrated from Vietnam, practices nail design during a class at City Beauty College on Florin Road in Sacramento. Sacramento Bee/Renée C. Byer

Owner Anna Tran says she spends 60 hours a week scrubbing feet, buffing calluses and polishing acrylic nails in her shop. She hopes that her five children will use their education to get into another line of work. Sacramento Bee/Renée C. Byer

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 03:10 AM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

News - July 11, 2004

Asians find NH makes a good home
Sunday News Staff


WHEN THE FIRST of what would be hundreds of South Vietnamese nationals, led by fathers who fought side by side with the Americans during the Vietnam War, began to trickle in to New Hampshire in the 1980s, Anne Sanderson was there.

Sanderson, a professional with the International Institute of New Hampshire in Manchester, made sure the newcomers were welcomed at the airport gate and had an apartment with food in the refrigerator waiting for them. She made herself available to help the 500 Vietnamese adjust to the new country whose language was nearly incomprehensible to them.

The fathers were former South Vietnam military officers, 70 percent of whom had endured years in re-orientation camps in which their captors tried to persuade them to embrace the philosophy of Vietnam's communist government. They came to America under the provisions of the U.S. Refugee Resettlement Act, legislation designed to assist former U.S. allies in getting out of Vietnam and into the United States.

Michael Duong, manager of Key Nails in the Bedford Mall, does the nails of Hayley McDonough of Bedford, a freshman at West High School. Duong and his family immigrated to Boston when he was 14. Now 30, he went to high school there and when the time came for him to choose a profession, the decision was easy. "I think I like women," the bachelor said, "so I went into manicuring, trying to please all the women. It's a very easy career." (TOM ROY/UNION LEADER)
The 2000 Census reports there are 1,440 Vietnamese-born people in New Hampshire, plus 281 Cambodians and 274 Laotians.

According to the latest census, Asian people make up one of the fastest-growing immigrant groups in New Hampshire.

The census also found that Vietnamese was the only language some of the Vietnamese (237 between the ages of 5 and 17 and the rest 18 and over) spoke in their home.

"Most came in the 1980s and 1990s," Sanderson said. "We only get one or two singles now: the adult children who could not travel when their parents first came" because they were too young.

"They have come, got jobs, purchased homes, and are really pretty independent," Sanderson said.

"They have picked up English. They have assimilated well into the community. They are very proud people."

"It is interesting to me," Sanderson said, "that a young lady who came to New Hampshire when she was six months old was in the state spelling bee."

Khiet Nguyen and her sister Dieu-thi Nguyen, were honored by The Union Leader and New Hampshire Sunday News with Francis Wayland Parker Scholarships of the Month, Dieu-thi as an 11th grader at Manchester Memorial in 2002, Khiet as a junior at Memorial in 2004. Their sister, Sarah, won the Manchester area spelling bee in 2003 when she was in the 8th grade at Southside Middle School.

Sanderson also applauded Chau Kelley of Manchester. (Chau came to New Hampshire as a refugee in the 1980s, attended Southern New Hampshire University and is in the real estate business.) "She is very successful in business, and has played a big role as a community leader," Sanderson said. "She makes sure the (Vietnamese) New Year's celebrations come together."

Barbara Seebart is with the Refugee Resettlement Administration in the Governor's Office of Energy and Community Services.

Asked about refugees who may still be coming in from Vietnam and other countries in Asia, Seebart said, "We are settling very few from Asia. They (Asian countries) are not designated as refugee countries," as Vietnam was under the refugee resettlement program in the 1980s.

"A few Vietnamese are still straggling in but that program is finished," Seebart said.

She referred to the two other countries that, along with Vietnam, comprised the former French Indochina: Laos and Cambodia.

"Many of the Cambodians who settled here in the 1980s and 1990s have gone to Lowell (Mass.) where there is a very large Cambodian community," Seebart said. "There is a large Laos population in Newmarket (they also came in the 1980s and 1990s) but they are well past refugee status."

Michael Druong is well past refugee status. Practically an oldtimer at 30, the Vietnamese native is passionate about his work.

It seems a job made in heaven. The Bedford manicurist gets to hold the hands of beautiful women in the nail salon he manages in the Bedford Mall. But holding hands isn't all roses, Duong says.

Bedford women are "not easy," he confided in a telephone interview. "Some are very tough customers. Demanding. But that's okay. We do our best to make them happy, ("them" meaning) the people from around here. We are patient and talented. We like to do our work and we do it well."

The "we" of Michael Duong are the five women on his staff at Key Nails. Three are Vietnamese and they work on nails. The two others, characterized by Duong as "American," are receptionists.

Duong and his family immigrated to Boston when he was 14. He went to high school there and when the time came for him to choose a profession, the decision was easy. "I think I like women," the bachelor said, "so I went into manicuring, trying to please all the women. It's a very easy career."

"I've been in many salons, mostly in Boston, and I've lived in New Hampshire for five years. It takes a year to be good at it, you practice on family members." Three hundred hours are required in New Hampshire to become an official manicurist, Duong said.

The women at Key Nails do both manicures and pedicures, but Duong only does hands, he said.

Are he and his employees assimilating into the American culture? "We try to fit in with the community in Bedford, but it's not easy," said Duong.

There is a trend among Vietnamese to open manicure shops, Lan Truong of New Hampshire Catholic Charities explained.

"Because of the economy and work force, they tend to become small business owners," Truong said. There's one in the Bedford Mall (Duong's) , one in Wal-Mart, the Mall of New Hampshire, and around Maple Street, she said, referring to some Manchester locations of Vietnamese-owned manicure shops.

"That is progress," Truong said. "Both men and women do the work. Some of them have told me clients say their nails last longer when done by a Vietnamese."

"I think we are good with sewing, good with crafts," said Truong.

Truong, who with her husband escaped from Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) when communist troops overran South Vietnam in 1975, is a paralegal who helps Vietnamese immigrants and refugees who come to Catholic Charities for legal assistance.

"They all go through an adaptation process, adapting to the language, for instance," Truong said. Catholic Charities works with 35 Vietnamese families in Nashua, through St. Christopher Church, 175 Vietnamese people in Manchester, through St. Augustine Church, and a few families through St. Joseph Church in Dover, Truong said. "We provide pastoral ministry and also help with immigration and refugee services," she said.

Not all Vietnamese have succeeded in mastering English, a language profoundly different from their own. "The child is forgetting the native language, so there is a problem between the generations," Truong said. "If children are speaking English and the parents are not, there is a communication gap. Really young children have learned only English, and the gap between them and their parents is wide.

"The children's Vietnamese is limited. Even when the parents speak English, it's only basic English," said Truong, whose English 30 years after coming to the United States is impeccable.

But, whether or not they have mastered the English language, the Vietnamese have the reputation of being good citizens.

"We are very proud of what (the Vietnamese newcomers) have done," Anne Sanderson said. "They have tried hard to give back to the community. And they never fail to assist when we call on them."

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 02:52 AM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

The Refinement of America–Persons, Houses, Cities.

In Conclusion...

What has happened to gentility in our century? Did the attacks on genteel culture at the end of the nineteenth century deal a mortal blow? Has the subsequent onslaught of rival cultural systems in the twentieth century erased gentility from our social consciences? While lords and ladies and country houses have been fading from American social imagination, have we also abandoned genteel habits and values?

The answer, of course, is no. Whatever the particular signs of barbarism in today's world, the more evident fact is that gentility is ingrained into our lives. We assume that house lots will have yards  with lawns and shrubbery, that houses will make space for formal entertainment, that everyone will own books, take baths, carry handkerchiefs, eat with knife and fork, forgetting that all this once had to be learned. Gentility is not at the top of the self-improvement agenda, as it was in 1850. But the refinement of America succeeded in making the practices of genteel culture second nature.

Gentility remains with us to this day, with all its pleasures and pains. Our love of beauty, our sensitivity, the kindness and amiability of society are qualities we prize, and these come from the desire to be refined. At the same time, gentility divides us and makes us anxious. Gentility separates us from one another on meretricious grounds: our clothes, our speech, our manners. We suffer embarrassment from the necessity to please, the sense of contrast performance, the fear of scorn. Through it all, we struggle to distinguish true gentility from vanity and superficial fashion.

The failings of refinement do not limit our sacrifices in its behalf. Gentility has commanded our resources ever since Americans first undertook to refine themselves nearly three hundred years ago. Elevation above the drab reality of ordinary life has seemed worth the cost. Here in Republican America, inspired by a distant court's dream of an unattainable beauty, we have suffered gentility's injustices, its expense, and its pains, in the hope of refining and thus exalting our streets, our houses, and ourselves. Richard L. Bushman

Richard L. Bushman, (1993) The Refinement of America–Persons, Houses, Cities. Vintage Books. pp-447


Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 01:42 AM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

The Garden...

is a product of domestication of both plants and animals. It is a utilitarian place and a place of ritual–a place of the miracle of the transformation of seed to plant, food, fruit, flower, and fragrance. Above all it is a place of life, a model of symbiotic relationship between humans and nature. The garden is a landscape idealized and transformed by design. The garden wall is a net, capturing elements of the wild landscape in preparation for their domestication and display. In the study of garden history we see places gradually evolving from their formative utilitarian agricultural function of food production into settings of expanded possibilities; places of leisure, pleasure, delight, and artistry. The garden should be understood and appreciated as a art of agriculture. Embellished and displayed it is the agriculturalist's art–the materials and forms transcending their basic nature. The "art" and the "agriculture" constitute another of the garden's dialectics, symbolic of the contrast between our most basic needs and profound desires. The garden can be a source of spiritual as well as physical sustenance. Kenneth Helphand

Mark Francis and Randolph T. Hester, Jr.(1990). The Meaning of Gardens-Ideas, Place, and Action. The MIT Press. pp-104

Posted by kanarinka on January 19, 2005 at 12:26 AM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Architecture from the Outside

From the Essays on Virtual and Real Space...

The outside is a peculiar place, both paradoxical and perverse. It is paradoxical insofar as it can only ever make sense, have a place, in reference to what it is not and can never be–an inside, a within, an interior. And it is perverse, for while it is placed always relative to an inside, it observes no faith to the consistency of this inside. It is perverse in its breadth, in its refusal to be contained or constrained by the self-consistency of the inside. The outside is the place one can never occupy fully or completely, for it is always other, different, at a distance from where one is. One cannot be outside everything, always outside: to be outside something is always to be inside something else. To be outside (something) is to afford oneself the possibility of a perspective, to look upon this inside, which is made difficult, if not impossible, from the inside. This is the rare and unexpected joy of the outsideness: to see what cannot be seen from the inside, to be removed from the immediacy of immersion that affords no distance. However, this always occurs at a cost: to see what cannot be seen is to be unable to experience this inside in its own terms. Something is lost–the immediate intimacy of an inside position; and something is gained–the ability to critically evaluate that position and to compare it with others. Elizabeth Grosz

Posted by kanarinka on January 18, 2005 at 11:24 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

The History of Nails in the U.S.

1800- Almond shaped nails, short and slightly pointed, are the ideal. Nails are sometimes tinted with scented red oil and buffed with a chamois cloth.

1830- In Europe, a foot doctor named Sitts develops the orangewood stick, adapted from a dental tool, for nails. Before this invention, metal tools, acid and scissors were used to manicure nails.

1879- The trade magazine American Hairdresser is published in the U.S.

1892- Dr. Sitts' niece brings nail care to women, and the Sitts method reaches the U.S. Salons spread and cater to women of different incomes.

1900- Women clip their nails with metal scissors and file their nails with metal files. Tinted creams or powders are massaged into the nails to create shine. A glossy nail varnish is available and is applied with a camel-hair brush, but wears off in a day.

1904- The Barber Supply Dealers Association of America, which becomes the the Barber and Beauty Supply Institute in 1921, holds it's first convention at the World's Fair in St. Louis, Mo., at which manufacturers and distributors meet and develop business relationships.

1907- Fromm Industries is founded as Illinois Razor Strop Company.

1910- Flowery Manicure Products is established around 1910 in New York City. The company manufactures metal nail files and invents and introduces the emery board (garnet abrasive on a wood center).

1914- Anne Kindred of North Dakota files a patent for a fingernail shield, a covering for the nails designed to protect them from discoloring while the wearer works with chemicals or other discoloring agents.

Wilde, the parent company of Light Concept Nails, is formed as a dental supply company.

1917- "Don't cut the cuticle!" warns a November 1917 Vogue ad. Instead, suggests Dr. W.G. Korony in Louisville, KY., "Employ the Simplex Method of Home Manicuring- requires no tools." The Simplex Sample Manicuring Outfit includes "Cuticle Remover, Nail Polish, Nail Enamel, Nail Whitener, Orange Stick, Emery Board, also Booklet of Home Manicuring Lessons.

Women buff their nails with cake, paste or powder. One formulation is Hyglo Nail Polish, claimed to be brilliant, lasting and waterproof.

Cutex is busy in the nail department, offering Cuticle Remover, Nail White, Nail Polish (in cake, paste, powder, liquid, or stick form; the color is pink), and Cuticle Comfort. A complete manicure set can be ordered for $.14.

For the New York woman disinclined to do her own nails at home, Miss Frederick at 500 Fifth Ave. "Specializes in Manicuring," according to Vogue Shoppers' & Buyers' Guide.

1918- Morris Flamingo, a supplier of beauty and barber products, opens for business as E. Morris Manufacturing Company in Detroit, manufacturing razor strops.

1920- Screen stars are known for a total look that is almost childlike, with short hair and slender figures. Nails are still unpolished, but soon the development of automobile paint provides the basis for fingernail paint.

1921- The National Hairdressers Assoc. (later to become the National Hairdressers & Cosmetologists Assoc., then the National Cosmetology Assoc.) is formed.

1922- Beauty Culture magazine is published in New York, N.Y.

1924- The Assoc. of Accredited Cosmetology Schools (AACS) is founded. It's a non-profit organization created to bring together all facets of the cosmetology industry, and to further education in cosmetology arts and sciences.

1925- Nail Polish enters the market in a sheer rosy red shade and is applied only to the center of the nail. The moon and the free edge are left colorless. The mid-twenties and thirties are the age of what Beatrice Kaye, manicurist at MGM, calls the "moon manicure." The cuticles are cut, the free edges filed into points, and polish applied to the nail but not to the moon. Sometimes the tip is left uncovered as well. However etiquette books of the time warn women against painting their nails with "garish colors."

Max Factor produces Max Factor's Supreme Nail Polish, a metal pot of beige-colored powder that's sprinkled on the nails and buffed with a chamois buffer. It gives nails shine and some tint.

1927- Max Factor introduces Society Nail Tint, a small porcelain pot containing rose colored cream. Applied to the nail and buffed, it gives a natural rose color. Society Nail White also hits the market. It's a tube of chalky white liquid that's applied under nail tips and left to dry. The end result resembles the modern French manicure. Max Factor also offers cuticle cream and cuticle remover.

1929- Polish with perfume is introduced, but it's popularity is short-lived.

1930- Ladies of the silver screen bring polish into vogue. The overall look is one of cool sophistication and elegant, immaculate grooming. The moon manicure thrives in various tints of red.

Gena Laboratories premieres it's polish remover, Warm-O-Lotion, cuticle oil and cuticle remover.

1932- Charles Revson, with his brother and chemist Joseph Revson, and Charles Lachman, creates an opaque, non-streaking nail polished based on pigments rather than dyes, making a variety of colors available. Revlon is created; in the thirties, the company invents the fashion of matching lip and nail color.

1934- Anna Hamburg of California is granted a patent for an artificial nail colored and that can be applied and removed easily without damage to the natural nail.

Maxwell Lappe, a dentist in Chicago, creates Nu Nails, an artificial fingernail for nail biters.

Max Factor's Liquid Nail Enamel is introduced and is similar to nail polishes of today. The company uses a limited number of pigments, which means it's enamel is available only in red, dark red, vermilion and crimson. The fashion is to cover the entire nail with polish.

1935- Eugene Rohrbach of New Jersey patents a nail covering that can be applied to the nail without glue. It is slipped over and under the nail's free edge.

1936- A finishing stencil, designed to be placed on top of the fingernail to ensure a consistent coat of polish, is patented by Stella O'Donnell of New York.

1937- A patent for a method using tips to repair and lengthen the nails is granted to Harriet Fligenbaum of Minnesota.

1938- Manicures cost from $.25 to $3.50, depending on whether or nor polish is applied. Base coat is created, which in turn leads to the entire nail being polished. Toenails receive attention, too- by 1938, they're getting a coat of polish along with the fingernails.

1940- Rita Hayworth's long red nails bring new shape to nail fashions. Hers are longer than previously worn, more oval than pointed, and fully covered with red polish. The look is glamorous, that of a worldly seductress.

During the first half of the twentieth century, men who frequent barbershops often receive a manicure as well as a haircut, shave and shoeshine. For the women, there are bright colors such as Schoolhouse Red Nail Polish from Elizabeth Arden, $.75 a bottle. Clear polish brushed over and under nail enamel extends the life of the manicure.

Frank Nolon of New York patents an applique for nail designs. Other patents issued in 1940 include manicure shields, cuticle guards, and protective nail coverings. Manicure shields allow the manicurist to paint the clients nails while she sits under the hair dryer without the heat reaching the fingertips and ruining the manicure.

In the days before there were fiberglass or silk wraps, there were teabags, coffee filters, and Duco cement, says Beatrice Kaye. Donna Kohl of Boise, Idaho, a nail technician for 16 years, says cigarette and perm papers and airplane glue were used for wraps.

1942- The Charles G. Spilo Company offers hair products and small selection of nail products.

1943- The Long Beach Hairdressers' Guild holds it's first show.

1945- M.A. Kraft patents a stand up easel with a hole cut in the bottom for the clients hand. This allows the manicurist to work on the clients hand, protected from the hair dryer's heat.

Max Factor offers Satin Smooth Nail Polish to consumers. An improvement upon it's earlier Liquid Nail Enamel, the polish is available in reds, pinks and other colors.

1947- Menda Scientific Products introduces it's babytime Dispenser for baby oil. By 1982, the company enters the beauty market, and obtains a patent on it's purity Protector acrylic liquid dispenser in 1986.

1948- Noreen Reho of Missouri creates a manicure apparatus that contains and supports the instruments used in manicuring.

1950- Many more nail colors come on the scene and with them, a more delicate looking nail. Nails go from pointed to oval and pale. Eyes are emphasized, with perhaps less attention paid to lips and nails.

There's an explosion of nail polish colors, including Sunny Side Up, a cream red from Revlon. A box containing nail polish, lipstick and lip liner costs $1.60 plus tax, according to a Vogue ad.

In the fifties, the invention of aerosol hair spray is borrowed by the nail industry to create spray on nail polish dryers.

Juliette Marglen markets a wrap material resembling a match-book with the wrap material in sheets, says Beatrice Kaye. Only the top third of the nail is covered. Having the nails wrapped this way is referred to as a "Juliette" manicure.

1957- Excelta Corp. begins importing tweezers and wire cutters for the electronic assembly industry under the name Swiss Army Precision Import's, later under the name Erem. The Danielle Division is formed in 1989 and introduces precision nippers, tweezers and implements for the nail industry.
Thomas Slack is issued a patent for a "platform" that fits around the nail edge, designed to help manicurists apply extensions to the natural nail. Made of foil, it is used to apply the first acrylic for nails, called Patinail, which is manufactured in the fifties by the Slack family. The product is named after Patricia Still, who developed and demonstrated the technique in department stores.

1959- Max Factor's Nail Enamel is introduced.

1960- The look for a nail is pale. Coral is the rage, but nearly every color under the sun is used by somebody. False nails make their entrance, and they are longer than ever. Silk and linen wraps are found to be stronger than paper wraps. Manicures cost around $7 - $12.

Mona Nail, a Dallas Co., manufactures one of the early acrylic systems available for nails.

Melvco is founded by a professional manicurist who develops the company's Nail Magic, a nail strengthener and conditioner.

1962- WR Medical introduces it's Therabath and wintergreen Theraffin.

1970- The age of the artificial nail. Acrylic nails look and feel real, but are much stronger. The square nail evolves. The salon is the place to get your nails made to order. By 1978, nails are very long and worn mainly by the rich. Artificial nails that cover the entire nail bed are available including the Eye-Lure Nails brand. These are inserted under a lifted cuticle to make them look as if they grow out of the finger. Glue holds them on but not for long-water dissolves the glue.

C.R. Manufacturing Company goes into business.

International Beauty Distributors is founded and starts with a diverse group of beauty products, including eyelashes, nail guards and wigs. In 1990 the company changes its name to International Beauty Design.

1971- SuperNail is founded and provides No Lite Gel, Stick It Nail Glue and Electra Nail.

Antoine de Paris opens for business, offering hair shears and cuticle nippers.

GG's Nails System is founded and starts with linen and fiberglass wraps.

1973- IBD develops the first adhesive especially for fingernails.

Wilde-Light Concept Nails develops an acrylester resin that is cured by UVA light. In 1985, the material is introduced to the European market as Light Concept Nails.

1974- IBD creates nail tips for professional nail technicians.

Lee Pharmaceuticals begins testing it's design for artificial fingernails.

1974 & 1975- The FDA seizes and recalls products containing methy methacrylate, a chemical considered to be hazardous, and forces manufactures to reformulate acrylics for the nail that are gentler.

1975- The National Association of Nail Artists (NANA) is founded, and it's first newsletter NANA News, is published. Phyllis Monier, one of the founders, wanted to help salon clients realize that nails are just as important as hair. The last issue of NANA News is published in 1983.

Orly international is founded, offering Orly Nail Paint, Romeo liquid fiber wrap and Ridgefiller primer base coat. The name "French Manicure" originates in 1978 when Orly introduces the first French manicure kit.

Pacific Airbrush starts making a line of paint.

Lee Pharmaceuticals introduces Lee Nails to the consumer market.

Supercuts is founded, making inexpensive haircuts available to salon patrons. The company franchises in 1979.

1976- Square nails become fashionable around 76-77, probably due to nail competitions- judges can easily critique a c- curve in a square nail. Exceptionally long nails are accepted and popular. Nail tips are used more and more, a relief to nail technicians who have difficulty applying forms.

Arius Eckert Company opens it's doors, offering industrial shears and scissors.

No Lift Nails evolves from a skin care company established in 1964.

1977- Brucci Ltd. is established with a line of Nail Hardener Shades. Beatrice Kaye manufactures Soak 10 and a manicure owl, the first items in her line of MGM STUDIO 10 natural nail care products.

1978- Creative Nail Design offers it's first product, non yellowing Solarnail, a liquid and powder resin.

Hair Care Service Center is founded and by 1987, the company's name changes to Hair Care Nail Supplies and markets products to the nail technician.

Salon Interiors takes root when its founder begins to knock on salon doors selling furniture and equipment.

Sogo is founded with a small nail repair kit known as "Patch 5" and a liquid dispenser called "The Pump."

1979- Mehaz International brings manicure sets from Germany to the U.S.

Origi-Nails is founded, offering sculpturing systems and education.

Simply Elegant's roots lie in a beauty supply store that opens in 1979.

Soft Touch opens for business, manufacturing the first cushioned foamboard file, the cushioned Grinder.

Sogo introduces fiberglass to the nail industry.

Lee Pharmaceuticals offers Sculptured Nails in an acrylic powder and liquid form to the consumer market.

1980- The eighties sees the use of nail drills (adapted from dental, hobby and jewelry drills) become common when working with acrylic nails. Fiberglass is the newest wrap system- light, strong & flexible. Nail charms and gold nails begin to decorate some clients' hands, and nail art worn by the Chinese as early as 5000 B.C., and much later by the Gypsies- finally makes it's appearance in the U.S.

The trade newspaper Mainly Manicuring reaches salons in the eighties.

Alpha 9 offers acrylic powders, liquid and primers.

Beauty Supply San Francisco opens with six product lines.

Dina-Meri brings rollabouts and other salon furniture.

Set-N-Me-Free Aloe Vera Products strts business selling aloe based products to beauty salons nationwide.

Snails Italian Jewelry provides gold posted initial charms for the fingernail.

Tweezerman begins business, offering the slant eyebrow tweezer.

World International Nail and Beauty Association (WINBA) holds it's firat tradeshow for nails, as well as it's world championship competitions.

1981- Essie Cosmetics is founded and offers nail technicians 12 different nail colors.

OPI Products is established and develops 4 NP Powders and L-2000 Liquid especially for the nail industry.

Star Nail Products is born on Venice Beach, Calif. it's first nail products are Star Original acrylic, polish and cosmetics.

1982- Develop 10 begins business, offering nail color and treatments.

Finger Mates offers Formula 10 Nail Hardener.

Kimberly-Clark introduces Handsdown Nail Care Towels to the industry.

Tammy Taylor, a manicurist and salon owner, offers her own line of nail products, beginning with liquid, powder and primer.

1983- Heken Gourley is the first in her area to offer one of the new gel systems on the market. Her lamp, invented by James T. Giuliano, an expert in plastic researxh, also creates a process for making artificial eyes.

Nails Magazine opens it's first ofices in Huntington Beach, Calif. and the first issue is distributed at the Long Beach Hairdressers' Guild Show.

Odorless systems are availible.

Ladyfingers is one company offering it.

H & H Products opens, manufacturing emery boards. The first Nail and Skincare Array (NASA) Show is held.

TruNails is purchased by Gabel Holding Co.

1984- Backscratchers is started in a school environment.

Lasco Diamond Products offers drills to the nail industry.

NaturalGlass is begun, with fiberglass, adhesive and spray accelerator.

Nail Systems International (NSI) is formed.

Worldwide Cosmetics-Winning Nails opens shop with a variety of nail care supplies.

1985- A Show of Hands begins offering stripping tape, paints and rhinestones for nail art.

Nailco Salon Marketplace opens it's doors, providing more than 1000 manicuring items.

Digits International emphasizes reflexology.

Realys Inc. begins making abrasive implements.

Lee Pharmaceuticals introduces Lee Press-On Nails, which are applied with adhesive tabs.

All Information is taken from Nails Magazine, February 1993
The History of Nails by Annie Gordon

Posted by kanarinka on January 18, 2005 at 10:46 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Ten Things you should know About Nail Polish

From The Nail Doctor, complete care and more...

1. Yellow Skin tones

If you have olive or yellow skin tones choose peach or clear polish to cover minor nail imperfections.

2. Nail Polish and Pink Skin Tones
If you have pink skin tones, choose pink or clear nail polish to cover minor nail imperfections.

3. History of Nail Polish Ingredients
During the Ming Dynasty, polish was made from a combination of beeswax, egg whites, gelatin, vegetable dies and Arabic gum. The polish we use today can give its thanks to the car industry. Today's polish is a refined version of car paint.

4. Who Invented Nail Polish
Nail Polish as we know it today was invented about 5000 years ago by the Chinese with the favored colors being red and black.

5. History of Nail Polish
The Egyptians apparently used to dip their fingers into orange henna.

6. Flaking Nail Polish
There is nothing more annoying than having to redo your nails because the polish on the tips has begun to flake off! Here is a trick that might save you the bother. Apply the polish in several THIN coats instead of thick ones. It seems to make a difference!

7. Uses For Empty Nail Polish Bottles
Fill the clean bottle with vegetable oil and paint your nails and cuticles several times a day.

8. After You Finish
After you've finished your polish application, don't stop there. Now is the perfect time to give yourself a hand massage. Use a rich hand cream and slather it on using circular movements until it is absorbed. Don't forget that our hands are constantly exposed and need constant attention.

9. Shelf Life of Polishes
Polish has a shelf life of about two years especially if stored properly.

10. More Bubbles in Your Polish

More causes of bubbling include drafts, air conditioners, fans etc. While applying polish, find a room that has none of these bubble producers

Posted by kanarinka on January 18, 2005 at 10:24 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Manicure History

Manicure History
Believe it or not, people have been manicuring their nails for more than 4,000 years. In southern Babylonia, noblemen used solid gold tools to give themselves manicures and pedicures. The use of fingernail polish can be traced back even further. Originating in China in 3,000 BC, nail color indicated one's social status -- according to a Ming dynasty manuscript, royal fingernails were painted black and red. The Egyptians also colored their nails, using red to show the highest social class. It is said that Cleopatra's nails were painted a deep red, whereas Queen Nefertiti went with a flashier ruby shade. In ancient Egypt and Rome, military commanders also painted their nails to match their lips before they went off to battle.

Posted by kanarinka on January 16, 2005 at 12:16 AM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

October 2, 2004–Fall in Berkeley Street Community Garden

Today marks the beginning to the end of the growing season. As part of the fall activities at the garden, the leadership organised a pot luck lunch.

Young and old, from a number of the regular gardeners joined the leadership. Hiroko, Catherine and myself were present from the team, Jeremy liu joined us later. There is a clear absence of many other gardeners, many other faces from the clean ups did not make it to the pot luck lunch.

The pot luck lunch was a good opportunity for everyone to get together to savor some of the different foods prepared by the gardeners. There were chillies and beans, melon pork soup, fried noodles, pastas, salads, sweets and dried foods like cookies, rice crackers, chinese waffers and much more.

John from the leadership said, " I have not had one of these waffers since I was a kid..."

So far our relationships with some of the gardeners have progressively developed, our presence in most of the clean ups and garden related events like the pot luck, have generated familiarity and social exchange that helped us gain access to some of the regulars.

Most of them are excited about the new tags and have actively welcomed us taking pictures of them and their garden plot.

Only some of the older elderly Chinese gardeners who appear to be less keen on being photographed. Many of this group say that they are too old and photos of them do not look good...Some gardeners also questioned why photograph their crops, often saying that, quote:" My melon is not the biggest, if you take this picture, all the rest of the gardeners will laugh at this..."

Clarie and Ann, leaders of the garden, are very supportive of our process and have expressed interests in the "Home and Gardens" photo/video project. Most of the Chinese gardeners I have spoken to, were very reluctant to participate in this, maybe I did not communicate clearly in Cantonese about our intentions for the project...I wonder how many younger generation Chinese have the same encounters as I do when communicating in their mother tongues...

Again, during the pot luck, I was given extra food by some of the Chinese gardeners, it is always so
heartwarming for me, like back home with all my aunts, grandparents and family. Helen and her growing partner, Ah Gu, gave me some of their harvest...Three bittermelons, a small winter melon and beans...

Posted by Jeremy Chu on October 04, 2004 at 04:54 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack

Public and Private Space: Reflections on the Living.

The Berkeley Community Gardens house gardeners of diverse social/ economic and cultural backgrounds.These diversities are reflected through the variety of gardening practises, methods of employing materials and use of land plots.

As a hypothesis,  the different gardening styles is a "public" representation of the "inner" living space which the gardeners replicates from memory or directly relates to their aesthetics production of space(Home). The idea that the order of living space and the order of the garden co-relates on multidimensional levels with many crossing overs may have resulted in the clash of styles and perceptive use of the space for utilitarian purposes.

It may be a research topic which can be explored further, taking the form of photographic essay/video document of the core relationships and interconnections between the public and the private.

The next topic is the increasing number of Nail Salons in the South End neighbourhood. The idea of the use of the human hand by a gardener verse the idea of personal physical beauty/health. What does it mean for diverse cultures to interact through the "bodily" human contact in the salons and what are the differences when that human interaction happens at the Berkeley Gardens? Where is the private and the public?

Posted by Jem on June 18, 2004 at 04:39 PM | Permalink | Comments (0) | TrackBack